As a result, techniques such as “geofencing”, which allows campaigns to reach people in a particular area, are becoming widespread. Last year, Brian Burch, the president of CatholicVote.org, a conservative group, claimed its work in Wisconsin identified 91,373 mass-attending Catholics who were “not even registered to vote”. This in a state where Mr Trump defeated Hilary Clinton by only 22,748 votes. Democrats do it too, but are way behind. Last year, Beto O’Rourke’s team was able to identify people’s mobile ID numbers during a rally with musician Willie Nelson. These were used to match people with email addresses to identify “Beto” supporters. India’s Narendra Modi is a leading exponent of such campaigning. In 2018, it was revealed that the default permission settings of his NaMo app gave it almost full access to the data stored on users’ phones, including audio, photos and videos, contacts and location services. Cybersecurity researchers said the app was sending user data to a US-based analytics company – allegedly without users’ permission. In the US, data collection from apps is legal as long as it is disclosed. The European Union forbids the collection of sensitive data – like that of religion, health or political opinions – without explicit consent. The concern is that although EU law has been imported into UK statute, it may be unwound in the years ahead. This would open the door to the kind of deceptive practices seen in the US that have undermined user privacy and have given rise to new legal and ethical concerns in this year’s presidential campaign.
real-time geolocation information." Different data, different rules The FCC has previously said that any location data in the National Emergency Address Database (NEAD) "may not be used for any non-911 purpose, except as otherwise required by law." That's a stronger protection than what the FCC applies to other forms of Customer Proprietary Network Information (CPNI).